Depth of Field, volume 5, no 1 (December 2014)Hilde Braet: Instrumental Photography. The Use of the Medium Photography to Stimulate Empowerment

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1. John Harland (Harland 2008) as well as Folkert Haanstra (cited by Stuivenberg and Van der Goot 2006) outline the instrumental and intrinsic effects for cultural and art education. Harland is freelance researcher and director at LC Research Associates. He was previously the head of the Northern Office in York of the National Foundation for Educational Research. Haanstra is a professor of art education at the Amsterdam School of the Arts and holds the special chair for Cultural Education and Cultural Participation at Utrecht University.

2. Ewald and Lightfoot 2001, p. 135.

3. For the pictures see:

4. Bhadra cited by The Guide Team 2010.

5. Wiles 2008, p. 2.

6. Wiles 2007.

7. Braet 2010.

8. Braet 2011, p. 25.

9. See Weiser’s website:

10. Batchen 2008, p. 27.

11. Martin and Spence 2003, p. 405.

12. Bourdieu 2007.

13. Barthes 1980.

14. Arnheim 1974.

15. Flusser 2007.

16. La Photographie: Tendances Récentes, Paris 1981; actualised: La Photographie: Tendances des Années 1950-1980, Paris 2002. In this work Lemagny proposes an ordering of the principal trends in photography.

17. Swinnen 1992, pp. 260-280.

18. Barrett 2006, p. IX. It is interesting to compare the first edition of 1990 with that of 2006 (which I used as a reference). Not only is the latest edition enriched with numerous (colour) reproductions, but its content is also more extensive and deals much more with ethics.

19. Barrett 2006, p. 208.